Equilibrium and Le Chatelier’s Principle

   
Equilibrium and Le Chatelier’s Principle
Student Name
Date
Purpose
Procedure
Experimental Data
Activities 1, 2, and 3
Write the chemical equation of the reaction at equilibrium:
Table 1
   

Quantity of Reagents

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Quantity of Reagents

Quantity of Reagents

Quantity of Reagents

Quantity of Reagents
 
Reagent

Test Tube #1, Control

Test Tube #2

Test Tube #3

Test Tube #4

Test Tube #5
 
Copper (II) Chloride

2.0 mL

2.0 mL

2.0   mL

2.0   mL

2.0   mL
 
Sodium   Chloride

0.0 mL

1.0 mL

2.0   mL

4.0   mL 

4.0   mL 
 
Color of   Solution

 
Silver   Nitrate

N/A

N/A

1.0   mL

N/A

N/A
 
Color of   Solution

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A
 
Water

N/A

N/A

N/A

3.0   mL

N/A
 
Color of   Solution

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A
  
Activity 4
Table 2
   
Stress

Water Bath Temperature (°C)

Solution Temperature
(°C)

Solution Color

Direction of Shift
(reactants or products) (ß    or à)
 
Test tube #4 
(Control   Solution)

 
Hot Water Bath 

 
Cold Water   Bath

Photos
Place the tubes on a white paper with adequate light. Use of white paper as a background will assist with view and color comparisons. Color changes may be subtle. Labels and colors of the liquid must be visible
Photo 1
Insert the photo of test tubes #1-5 from Activity 1. Compare the colors of the solutions in test tubes #2–5 to that in test tube #1. 
Photo 2
Insert the photo of test tubes #1 and #3 from Activity 2. 
Photo 3
Insert the photo of test tubes #4 and #5 from Activity 3. 
Photo 4
Insert the photo of test tubes #4 and #5 from Activity 4, step 8.
Photo 5
Insert the photo of test tubes #4 and #5 from Activity 4, step 13.
Lab Questions
1. What is the “common ion” that you added to test tubes #2–5, and how it affect the equilibrium reaction? 
2. Write an equation showing what happens when AgNO3 is added, and explain why the equilibrium shifts. Provide the experimental observation. 
3. Explain the equilibrium shift that occurs when water is added to the original equilibrium reaction. Provide the experimental observation.
   
   
4. Write “heat” on either the left or right side of this equation, based upon Activity 4.
_____ + Cu(H2O)62+(aq) + 4Cl–(aq) D CuCl42–(aq) + 6H2O(l) + _____ 
   
Blue
Green
  
5. Consider the chemical reaction: N2 + 3H2 yields 2NH3. The equilibrium constant is K = 6.0 x 10-2, and concentrations are as follows [H2] = 2.5 x 10-1 M, [N2] = 4.0 M, and [NH3] = 1.0 x 10-4 M. Is the reaction at equilibrium? If not, which direction would it shift? Show your calculations.
6. Given this reaction at equilibrium, C(s) + CO2(g) D 2CO(g) (∆H° = 119kJ), explain the changes that would occur when the following stresses are applied:
(a) CO is removed. 
(b) Heat is removed.
(c) CO2 is added. 
7. Describe sources of error in this experiment. 
Conclusions

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